What is type 1 diabetes??

Type 1( Diabetes insidious) results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin. Type 1 Also called as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes.

What are causes of type 1 diabetes?

90% causes unknown. Maybe due to the body’s immune system which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas.


What are sign and symptoms of type 1 diabetes?

The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are:

  • Weight loss
  • Polyuria: increased urination.
  • Polydipsia: increased thirst, and
  • Polyphagia: increased hunger
  • Symptoms may develop rapidly (early childhood before age 10-15) in type 1 diabetes, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2.

Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not peculiar to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include

  • Blurry vision,
  • Headache,
  • Fatigue,
  • Slow healing of cuts, and
  • Itchy skin.

Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Some skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.

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What is the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes?

History: Patient history of excessive urination, excessive thirst, and hunger. Marked changes in weight loss.

WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria

Condition:

  • 2 hour glucose
  • Fasting glucose
  • HbA1c
  • Unit
  • mmol/l(mg/dl)
  • mmol/l(mg/dl)
  • mmol/mol
  • DCCT %

Normal:

  • <7.8 (<140)
  • <6.1 (<110)
  • <42
  • <6.0

Impaired fasting glycaemia

  • <7.8 (<140)
  • ≥6.1(≥110) & <7.0(<126)
  • 42-46
  • 6.0–6.4

Impaired glucose tolerance

  • ≥7.8 (≥140)
  • <7.0 (<126)
  • 42-46
  • 6.0–6.4

Diabetes mellitus

  • ≥11.1 (≥200)
  • ≥7.0 (≥126)
  • ≥48
  • ≥6.5

When type 1 diabetes occurs?

Commonly before the age of 15 years typical symptoms presentation.

What is the treatment of type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes also called insulin dependent diabetes. The only insulin is given before the meal.

  • Taking several insulin injections every day or using an insulin pump.
  • Monitoring blood sugar levels several times a day.
  • Eating a healthy diet that spreads carbohydrate throughout the day.
  • Regular physical activity or exercise. …
  • Regular medical checkups. …
  • Not smoking
  • Prevention of complications.

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What are preventive measures of type 1 diabetes?

There are no preventive measures for type 1 diabetes.