What are Complications of diabetes (type 1 & type 2)?
All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years (10–20) but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time.
The major long-term complications relate to
- Damage to blood vessels.
- Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease.
- About 75% of deaths in people with diabetes are due to coronary artery disease.
- Other “macrovascular” diseases are the stroke and peripheral vascular disease.
- The first complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves.
- Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye and can result in gradual vision loss and blindness.
- Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease, sometimes requiring dialysis or kidney transplant.
- Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes.
- The symptoms can include numbness, tingling, pain, and altered pain sensation, which can lead to damage to the skin.
- Diabetes-related foot problems (such as diabetic foot ulcers) may occur and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation.
- Additionally, proximal diabetic neuropathy causes severe muscle wasting and weakness.
Preventions from diabetes
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes, which accounts for 85-90% of all cases — can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining
- a healthy body weight,
- Engaging in physical exercise.
- Consuming a healthful diet.
- Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%.
- Dietary changes known to be useful in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber and choosing healthy fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish.
- Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes.
- Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications so that smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
- The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors (excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use) is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization, urbanization, population aging, and the general health policy environment.
In some countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, precise blood sugar control, or research projects.
- In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.
- End life complication treated in intensive care units specially design for diabetics end stage.
- Surgery such as kidney transplantation, amputation, etc. needs attention.
Facts about diabetes:
- Men are slightly at higher risk than women in the development of diabetes.
- Not only obese people develop diabetes but others also at risk.
- 10% women with gestational diabetes develop diabetes mellitus in later life.
- In general, a child has a 1 in 7 chance of developing diabetes if one parent was diagnosed before age 50. A child would have a 1 in 13 chance if the parents were diagnosed after age 50. Some studies suggest that the child’s risk of developing diabetes is greater if the mother has diabetes. If both parents have diabetes, the child’s risk of developing it is approximately 50 percent.
- Research suggests that 1 out of 3 adults have pre-diabetes. Of this group, 9 out of 10 people don’t know that they have pre-diabetes.
- Ethnic group proportion
- Diabetes mellitus is more prevalent amongst Native Americans, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans than among Caucasians in the United States.
- Asian Americans have 9% higher risk of diabetes.
- Hispanics have a 12.8 percent increased risk, and non-Hispanic blacks have 13.2 % greater risk of diabetes than non-Hispanic white adults in the United States.
- Among Hispanics, there are more adults diagnosed than compared to U.S. non-Hispanic white adults, and this varies significantly depending on royal lineage.
- Currently, the rate of diagnosed diabetes type 1 and type 2 is 8.5 percent for Central and South Americans, 9.3 % for Cubans, 13.9 % for Mexican Americans, and 14.8 percent for Puerto Ricans.
- American Indian adults in southern Arizona have the world’s highest rates of type 2 diabetes, with one in three currently diagnosed.
- Type 2 diabetes is very rare among children of all racial and ethnic backgrounds, but is still diagnosed at higher rates in many minority groups than in Caucasians, particularly among Asian/Pacific Islanders ages 10 to 19.
Type 2 diabetes risk increases with age. Although the number of children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is increasing due to a growing number of overweight youth, it is considerably less common in children and young adults than in older individuals.
Prevalence rate in all over the world:
- Although men have a slightly increased risk of type 2 diabetes compared to women, this may be more significantly associated with lifestyle factors and body weight than innate gender differences.
- Among youth age less than ten years, the rate of new cases was 0.8 per 100,000 for type 2 diabetes in 2010-2011.
- Among youth ages 10 to 19, the rate of new cases of type 2 diabetes was 11.0 per 100,000.
- By the year 2014 in United state, 9.3 % of all adults 20 or over have diabetes. Among adults 65 or over, 25.9 % have diabetes.
- In comparison, children 19 and under have a rate of only 0.26 %.
- WHO anticipates that worldwide death attributable to diabetes will double by 2030.
- Adults ages 40 to 65 are at highest risk but age shift to 60-80 by the year 2030.
- Prevalence increases in general population that leads to complications thus death rate increases at the time.
- The number of new cases increases by the time but cure rate very low that’s why prevalence rate of diabetes type 2 is much higher in general population.